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2017年考研英语新题型最新模拟题

[03-01]   来源:http://www.mp3-ytb.com  考研英语   阅读:407

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正文: Habits are a funny thing. We reach for them mindlessly, setting our brains on auto-pilot and relaxing into the unconscious comfort of familiar routine. “Not choice, but habit rules the unreflecting herd,” William Wordsworth said in the 19th century. In the ever-changing 21st century, even the word “habit” carries a negative connotation.
  So it seems paradoxical to talk about habits in the same context as creativity and innovation. But brain researchers have discovered that when we consciously develop new habits, we can even create entirely new brain cells that can jump our trains of thought onto new, innovative tracks. 41_____________________________
  All of us work through problems in ways of which we’re unaware, says Dawna Markova, author of “The Open Mind”. Researchers in the late 1960s discovered that humans are born with the capacity to approach challenges in four primary ways: analytically, procedurally, relationally (or collaboratively) and innovatively. 42________________________
  The current emphasis on standardized testing highlights analysis and procedure, meaning that few of us inherently use our innovative and collaborative modes of thought. 43__________________ This emphasis clearly leads to ordinary performance. On the contrary, knowing what you’re good at and doing even more of it creates excellence.
  44________________________ Figure out what has worked for you when you’ve learned in the past, and you can draw your own map for developing additional skills and behaviors for the future. Ms. Ryan says, “If you have a pathway to learning, use it because that’s going to be easier than creating an entirely new pathway in your brain.”
  Ms. Ryan and Ms. Markova have found what they call three zones of existence: comfort, stretch and stress. Comfort is the realm of existing habit. Stress occurs when a challenge is so far beyond current experience as to be overwhelming. It’s that stretch zone in the middle ― activities that feel a bit awkward and unfamiliar ― where true change occurs.
  Getting into the stretch zone is good for you, according to Ms. Ryan. It helps keep your brain healthy. It turns out that unless we continue to learn new things, which challenges our brains to create new pathways, they literally begin to weaken, which may result in brain diseases. She recommends practicing a technique called kaizen, which calls for tiny, continuous improvements.
  45__________________________ That can be fatal in business, particularly for executives who surround themselves with like-thinkers. If seniority and promotion are based on similarity to those at the top, chances are strong that the company lacks intellectual diversity.
  [A] This is where developing new habits comes in. If you’re an analytical or procedural thinker, you learn in different ways than someone who is inherently innovative or collaborative.
  [B] Rather than dismissing ourselves as unchangeable creatures of habit, we can instead direct our own change by consciously developing new habits. In fact, the more new things we try ― the more we step outside our comfort zone ― the more inherently creative we become, both in the workplace and in our personal lives.
  [C] After the confusion, the brain begins organizing the new input, ultimately creating new synaptic connections if the process is repeated enough.
  [D] “This breaks the major rule in the American belief system ― that anyone can do anything,” explains M. J. Ryan, author of the 20xx book “This Year I Will...”
  [E] But if, during creation of that new habit, the “Great Decider” steps in to protest against taking the unfamiliar path, people may keep doing the same thing over and over again.
  [F] At teenage years, however, the brain shuts down half of that capacity, preserving only those modes of thought that have seemed most valuable during the first decade or so of life.
  [G] Simultaneously, take a look at how colleagues approach challenges, Ms. Markova suggests. We tend to believe that those who think the way we do are smarter than those who don’t.
  Part B
  一、文章体裁结构分析
  这是一篇有关人们开发新习惯进而引发创新的说明文。文章第一、二段引出习惯这一话题,并说明了开发新的习惯可以带来创新。第三、四、五段解释了新习惯是如何产生的;后面剩余几段说明了人在拉伸区容易发生新的变化进而促进人的大脑健康。
  二 、试题解析
  【参考答案】 41. B 42. F 43. D 44. A 45. G
  41.【正确答案】B
  【解答过程】从文中给出的内容我们粗略地知道文章谈论的是有关开发新习惯引发创新的话题。本题缺失内容位于第二段的段尾,因此我们要回到空前的内容去寻找答题线索。前面提到如果我们有意识地去开发新的习惯, 就能让思维跳到创新的轨道上,由此,我们可以推测选填的内容可能会进一步解释这两者的关系。查看选项,B中“we can direct our change by consciously developing new habits”刚好涉及这一内容,而且“Rather than dismissing ourselves as unchangeable creatures of habit” 刚好是对前面“consciously”这个词的回应和解释,因此本题答案为E。
  42.【正确答案】F
  【解答过程】本题缺失内容是第三段的段尾。我们可以根据上下文来判断合理的选项,空前的内容提及“我们都以我们意识不到的方式来处理问题”;第四段的句首又提到“我们之中很少有人生来就能运用我们的创造性和合作思维模式”,据此我们可以推断正确的选项应该与部分能力未被开发有关,查看选项,只有F提到人们在青少年的时候有一半也就是两种能力关闭了,这正好与空后的内容相一致。故答案为C。
  43.【正确答案】D
  【解答过程】本题缺失内容在第四段的中间,而中间的内容必然会起到衔接上下的作用,因此我们需要参考该空的前后来寻找线索。空前的内容谈到“我们之中很少有人生来就能运用我们的创造性和合作性思维模式”;空后的内容谈到“这种强调很明显导致了平庸表现”,这说明缺失的内容应该是有人进行了这种强调,查看选项,D正好与此有关,而且选项开头的“this” 刚好能指代前面的“我们之中很少有人生来就能运用我们的创造性和合作性思维模式”,故答案为A。
  44.【正确答案】A
  【解答过程】本题缺失内容是第五段的段首句。同样我们需要在其上下文找线索。空前的内容(第四段最后)反对由于缺乏创新导致的平庸表现,故此处应该引出新的东西;而且空后提到“找出你过去学习的有用的东西,你可以画出未来可以开发的附加技巧和行为图”,这显然与人的分析或者学习东西的能力有关,参看选项,A刚好就是与这个有关,故答案为A。
  45.【正确答案】G
  【解答过程】本题缺失内容是段首句,我们应根据前后文来确定答案。空前内容(上一段)提到Ryan建议人们进行kaizen的技巧练习,那么我们可以推测接下来应该还有别的方法参考;而且空后提到“这对商业具有致命的打击,对那些身边充斥着只会附和的员工的老板们来说尤其如此。”这说明有一种想法或倾向是致命的,查看选项,G中的发“simultaneous”刚好可以引入别的方法,而其中的“我们总是相信那些做法和我们一致的人要比那些做法和我们不一致的人聪明得多”这句话刚好和“附和”是一个意思,而且是一种有害的主观倾向,刚好能满足这一空的要求,因此答案是G。
  【干扰项分析】干扰项C,提到“After the confusion”,说明前面必然要提到混乱、困惑状态下的状况,而这在文章中根本找不到对应内容,故排除;干扰项E项中首次出现了“the “Great Decider”,文中只字未提该短语或做出任何相关的解释,如果选择会很突兀,故排除掉。
  全文翻译:
  习惯是一个很有趣的事情。我们漫不经心地触及它,让我们的大脑处于自动巡航状态,放松地进入熟悉的日常工作的无意识舒适之中。威廉.华兹华斯在19世纪说:“不是选择,而是习惯驾驭了轻率的兽群”。在21世纪,即使是习惯也带上了负面涵义。
  因此在与创意和创新相同的语境里谈习惯似乎有些矛盾。但从事大脑研究的人员已经发现,当我们有意识地开发新习惯时,我们甚至能够创造全新的脑细胞,这能够使我们的思绪跳跃到创新的轨道上。不必将我们当作是一成不变的习惯的动物,我们实际可以通过有意识地开发新习惯来引导我们自己的变化。实际上,我们越多尝试新东西,越多超越我们的舒适区,我们就会从内在里具备创造性,不管是工作上还是生活里。
  《开放的思想》一书的作者Dawna Markova说,我们所有人都以我们意识不到的方式来处理问题。20世纪60年代的研究人员发现,人类出生时就有能力以四种方式应对挑战:分析性,程序性,相关性(合作性)和创新性。但在青少年时期,大脑关闭一半的能力,仅保留哪些似乎在人生最初10多年中最有价值的哪些思维模式。
  目前对于标准化测试的重视强调分析和程序,意味着我们之中很少有人生来就能运用我们的创造性和合作性思维模式。20xx年出版的《今年我将…》一书作者M. J. Ryan 解释说:“这破坏了美国信仰体系中的最重要法则―每个人都能做成任何事情”。这种重视很明显导致了平庸表现。相反地,知道你擅长做的,并且多做会成就卓越。
  就是在此新习惯登场了。如果你是一个分析型或程序型的思考者,你学习的方式不同于先天是创新或合作型的人。找出你过去学习的有用的东西,你可以画出未来可以开发的附加技巧和行为图。Ryan女士说:“如果你有路径来学习,就要用它,因为这将比在你的大脑创作全新的路径要容易得多。”
  Ryan和Markova两位女士已经发现了她们称之为三种存在区的东西:舒适,拉伸,压力。舒适是现存习惯的领地。压力是在挑战远远超越目前经验,以至于不可抗拒时发生。处于中间的是拉伸区,是一些感到有点别扭和不熟悉的活动,就在这一区发生真正的变化。
  根据Ryan女士的说法,进入拉伸区对你是有好处的。这有助于你保持大脑健康。结果显示除非我们继续学习新东西,这样挑战我们大脑去创造新路径,否则大脑就会开始变弱,这可能会导致大脑疾病。她推荐练习一种叫做kaizen的技巧,这种技巧需要微小而持续的提高。
  同时,你去看看你的同事是如何应对挑战的,这是Markova小姐提出的建议。我们总是相信那些做法和我们一致的人要比那些做法和我们不一致的人聪明得多。这种倾向对商业具有致命的打击,对那些身边尽是些附和者的老板们来说尤其如此。如果论资排辈和职务晋升都要建立在对高层领导想法的附和之上,那么这个公司的才智肯定会趋于单一化。
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