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2017年考研英语阅读理解精读100篇(高分版)TEXT16

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 TEXT SIXTEEN
  The animal dissection requirement of biology classes has been getting under the skin of students for generations, and there have always been some who asked to be excused from the requirement. Now, a growing number of technological alternatives are making it possible for students to swap that scalpel for a computer mouse. There are laws in nearly a dozen states-including California, Florida, New Jersey, and New York-protecting a student’s choice to learn about animal anatomy sans scalpel. Some students choosing to opt out feel we should be kinder to our web-footed friends. Others are just queasy at the thought of rubbery frog bodies and the smell of formaldehyde.
  "Dissection is icky. There’s a yuck factor," admits Brian Shmaefsky, a board member with the National Association of Biology Teachers. "And a teacher has to weigh the benefits with the cost of students being offended to the point that it interferes with learning."
  Virtual blades. So for cases in which a real dissection would be too slimy, it’s time to try some toad tech. While the first computer-based alternatives to dissection emerged in the 1980s, modern frog dissection software can be found at different websites. These software programs use creative clicking, high-powered zoom functions, and video clips to teach anatomy. Froguts software, for example, lets students trace incision lines with a computer mouse and snip through skin with a virtual blade. There are even sound effects like a "slish" for slicing frog flesh, or a "shwoosh" for pinning down skin flaps. (Schools currently pay about $300 for a one-year software license, though some organizations will lend programs out free of charge.)
  Earlier this year, a graduate student from Simon Fraser University in Vancouver designed the first-ever haptic (the Greek word for "touch") frog dissection program, which uses a penlike tool to create a sensation similar to cutting into real flesh. The hand-held device connects to a computer, and students move the device through the air while watching the results of their actions on a computer screen.
  With Digital Frog-a popular program that’s had approximately 1,500 frog demo downloads since January and is currently in use in 2,000 schools-students can add or subtract those amphibious organs with a mere mouse click. They can then assess their learning with sporadic frog anatomy quizzes.
  "Repetition is helpful. The fact that a student can review sections of a program over and over again is important," says Martin Stephens, vice president for animal research issues at the Humane Society of the United States. "In dissections, the animal’s organs are all shriveled and discolored. You look for things and can’t find them because body parts have changed drastically since the animal was killed. But on a computer screen, layers can be digitally peeled away." Other experts think the dissection technology has its limits. Gerry Wheeler, executive director of the National Science Teachers Association, says that artificial simulations don’t give as enriching an experience as the real thing. Still others worry the programs are depriving kids of experiential learning.
  1. The word "swap" (Line 3, Paragraph ) most probably means_____.
  [A] exchange
  [B] throw away
  [C] reject
  [D] refuse
  2. Some students ask to be excused from the requirement of biology classes because of the following reason except that_____.
  [A] dissection consists of disgusting procedures and unpleasant smells.
  [B] they are entitled to reject dissection requirement given the legal regulation
  [C] they are offended when fulfilling the requirements of animal dissection
  [D] they insist that people should treat animals more as friends instead of simply objects
  3.Brian Shmaefsky’s statement implies that_____.
  [A] he indeed supports the students’ animal protection movement
  [B] he thinks the animal dissection should be banned
  [C] he thinks the animal dissection may not be good for students to learn biology effectively
  [D] he always evaluate the teaching effect by weighing reluctant factors of cost and effect
  4.Compared with the real dissection, the dissection on computer has the following advantages except_____.
  [A] It has authentic sound effect like a "slish" or "shwoosh" .
  [B] there is a sensation of always dealing with fresh and recognizable organs.
  [C] The process can be repeated so that students can gather better insight of the animal structure.
  [D] Students can take quizzes with the software to evaluate the learning effect
  5.The author’s attitude towards the toad tech can be said to be_____.
  [A] supportive
  [B] doubtful
  [C] objective
  [D] biased
  文章剖析:
  这篇文章介绍了一种可以替代生物课解剖的电脑程序。第一段讲述传统解剖的弊端,引出解剖科技替代品;第二段是一位委员对传统解剖的看法;第三段讲述电脑解剖的效果;第四段、第五段介绍了两个电脑解剖程序;第六段讲述电脑解剖的优点和局限性。
  词汇注释:
  dissection n. 解剖
  swap v. 交换
  scalpel n. 解剖刀
  queasy adj. 不安的,易恶心的
  formaldehyde n. 甲醛
  incision n. 切割,切口

 icky   adj.粘得讨厌的
  yuck n. 讨厌
  slimy adj. 粘糊糊的
  toad n. 蟾蜍,癞蛤蟆
  haptic adj.触觉的
  demo n. 示范样品
  amphibious adj. 两栖的
  sporadic adj. 零星的,时有时无的
  shrivel v.(使)起皱纹, (使)枯萎, (使)束手无策

难句突破:
  (1) Earlier this year, a graduate student from Simon Fraser University in Vancouver designed the first-ever haptic (the Greek word for "touch") frog dissection program, which uses a penlike tool to create a sensation similar to cutting into real flesh.
  [主体句式] A graduate designed the program.
  [结构分析] 这是一个简单句,earlier this year是做整个句子的状语,后面which 引导的菲限定性定语从句是用来修饰program的。
  [句子译文] 在今年年初,温哥华西蒙・弗雷泽大学一位研究生设计出了第一个haptic(希腊词为"触觉")青蛙解剖程序。这个程序用一种类似笔的工具创造出一种类似于切割真正皮肉的感觉。
  (2) With Digital Frog-a popular program that’s had approximately 1,500 frog demo downloads since January and is currently in use in 2,000 schools-students can add or subtract those amphibious organs with a mere mouse click.
  [主体句式] Students can add or subtract...
  [结构分析] 这是一个简单句,前面with Digital Frog是方式状语,破折号之间的是用来解释Digital Frog的,可以看作是同位语;破折号之间的这个成分中,that 引导的定语从句修饰program,这个从句是由两个并列的句子构成的,以and连接。
  [句子译文] "电子青蛙"是一种很受欢迎的程序,自一月份以来有大约1500个青蛙示范样品下载,现在用于20xx所学校。学生们只需用鼠标点击就可以加上或切除两栖器官。
  题目分析:
  1. The word "swap" (Line 3, Paragraph 1 ) most probably means_____.1. "swap" (第一段第三行)最有可能的意思是_____。
  [A] exchange[A] 交换
  [B] throw away[B] 抛弃
  [C] reject[C] 丢弃
  [D] refuse[D] 拒绝
  [答案]A
  [难度系数] ☆☆
  [分析] 猜词题。上文提到,有一些学生要求不做这种解剖,那么现在有许多科技替代物使得这个成为现实,就是用计算机鼠标来替代解剖刀,下文也提到了用电脑程序来代替真正的用解剖刀进行的实验。因此,正确答案为A。
  2. Some students ask to be excused from the requirement of biology classes because of the following reason except that_____.2. 一些学生要求免于生物课的要求是因为除了选项_____外以下的原因。
  [A] dissection consists of disgusting procedures and unpleasant smells.[A]解剖的过程很恶心且气味难闻。
  [B] they are entitled to reject dissection requirement given the legal regulation[B] 有相应法律允许他们拒绝修解剖课程。
  [C] they are offended when fulfilling the requirement of animal dissection[C] 他们在上动物解剖课时感觉受到自己受到了冒犯。
  [D] they insist people should treat animals more as friends instead of simply objects[D] 他们坚持认为人们对待动物应该更像朋友而不是客观物体。
  [答案]B
  [难度系数] ☆☆☆☆
  [分析] 推理题。文章第一段提到,一些学生选择不做是因为他们感到应到对这种动物友好些,另外是因为想到青蛙的身体、闻到甲醛的味道就感到恶心。因此,答案A、D 是原因,答案B并不是他们不愿意做解剖的原因,而是因为他们不愿意做才有了相关法律保护他们的这种权利。答案C包含了A和D两个选项。因此,答案为B。
  3.Brian Shmaefsky’s statement implies that_____.3. Brian Shmaefsky的话意味着_____。
  [A] he indeed support the students’ animal protection movement.[A] 他实际上支持学生们的保护动物运动
  [B] he thinks the animal dissection should be banned[B] 他认为应当禁止动物解剖考试大收集整理
  [C] he thinks the animal dissection may not be good for students to learn biology effectively[C] 他认为动物解剖不一定有利于学生有效地学习生物
  [D] he always evaluate the teaching effect by weighing relevant factors of cost and effect[D] 他总是通过衡量相关的成本及产出等因素来衡量教学效果
  [答案]C
  [难度系数] ☆☆☆
  [分析] 推理题。Brian Shmaefsky的话分为两部分:解剖粘糊糊的,比较讨厌;老师应该衡量一下学生如果感觉到受到冒犯,甚至影响到了学习那就得不偿失了。前半句也是为后面的服务,又根据他是国家生物教师协会成员,那么应该是针对对学生学习,他觉得这种解剖有时会阻碍学生学习。答案C符合题意。答案D并不是他想要表达的意思;B他并没有表示出这一点来;而A选项在文章中则没有得到明确的体现。
  4.Compared with the real dissection, the dissection on computer has the following advantages except_____.4. 相对于真正的解剖,电脑解剖有以下的优点,但_____除外。
  [A] It has authentic sound effect like a "slish" or "shwoosh" .[A] 它可以有真实的声音效果,如发出"嘶""嗤"的声音。
  [B] there is a sensation of always dealing with fresh and recognizable organs.[B] 软件给人的感觉是这些动物器官都是新鲜的,且易于辨认。
  [C] The process can be repeated so that students can gather better insight of the animal structure.[C] 解剖过程可以重复,以便于学生们能够更加深入地了解动物的结构。
  [D] Students can take quizzes with the software to evaluate the learning effect[D] 学生可以用软件中的一些测验来评估他们的学习效果。
  [答案]A
  [难度系数] ☆☆☆
  [分析] 细节题。题目要求找出电脑解剖相对于传统解剖的优点所在,选项A是电脑模仿实际解剖的声音效果,而这种声音本身在实际解剖中也有存在,因此只是一种摹仿,并不是电脑的高超之处。B在文章第六段提到,说动物的器官都是枯萎的、没有颜色的。你想要找到什么,可是最终没能找到,因为动物被杀死后身体部分改变很大。但是在电脑屏幕上,身体每一层都可以电子式地剥下来。C在第六段也提到了,说可以重复,这样学生就可以复习。D在第五段中提到。因此,答案为A。
  5.The author’s attitude towards the toad tech can be said to be_____.5. 作者对于这种解剖科技的态度可以说是_____。
  [A] supportive[A] 支持的
  [B] doubtful[B] 怀疑的
  [C] objective[C] 客观的
  [D] biased[D] 有偏见的
  [答案] A
  [难度系数] ☆
  [分析] 态度题。在这篇文章中,作者介绍了生物课上解剖的替代物--电脑解剖程序,虽然在文章最后一段作者也提到了这种替代物的局限,但是整篇文章来看作者都是一种赞赏的态度,列举了这种方法的优点。因此,其态度是支持的,选A。
  参考译文:
  世世代代生物课上的动物解剖要求都是要割开皮肤,经常有人要求免于这种要求。目前,日益增多的科技替代品使得学生们可以用一个电脑鼠标来替代解剖刀。几乎十几个州中(包括加利福尼亚州、佛罗里达州、新泽西州和纽约州)都有相关法律,保证学生可以选择不用解剖刀就可以学习动物解剖。一些选择不用解剖刀的学生认为我们对这些翼手的朋友也应该友善一些。而还有一些人一想到青蛙有弹性的身体和甲醛气味就感到恶心。
  "解剖粘糊糊的,挺讨厌的。"国家生物教师联合会管理委员会委员布Brian Shmaefsky承认。老师必须得衡量一下学生感觉到被冒犯甚至影响到学习这个弊端。
  虚拟刀片。因此如果真正的解剖太粘糊糊的话,那么是时候该试试一些蛤蟆科技了。第一种基于电脑的解剖替代品出现在20世纪80年代,而现代的青蛙解剖软件可以在许多不同的网站找到。这些软件程序用富有创意的点击、高性能的缩放功能以及视频片断来教授解剖。比如说 "青蛙内脏"软件可以让学生使用鼠标就可以顺着切口线用一把虚拟解剖刀切开青蛙皮肤。甚至还有声音效果,在划开青蛙身体时有"嘶"的一声,或是钉下皮肤组织时"嗤"的一声。(现在学校为软件一年的许可证支付300美元,而有的组织还免费借出程序。)
  在今年年初,温哥华西蒙・弗雷泽大学一位研究生设计出了第一个haptic(希腊词为"触觉")青蛙解剖程序。这个程序用一种类似笔的工具创造出一种类似于切割真正皮肉的感觉。这种手持工具连接到电脑,学生在空气中移动该工具,同时可以通过电脑屏幕可以观看他们动作的结果。
  "电子青蛙"是一种很受欢迎的程序,自一月份以来有大约1500个青蛙示范样品下载,现在用于20xx所学校。学生们只需用鼠标点击就可以加上或切除两栖器官,然后还可以不时用分散的青蛙解剖测试来检查自己学习的效果。
  "重复是有帮助的,事实是学生可以一遍又一遍地回顾程序的各个部分,这是重要的。"美国保护动物协会动物研究事务副主任马丁・斯蒂芬斯这样说,"在解剖中,动物的器官都是枯萎的、没有颜色的。你想要找到什么,可是最终没能找到,因为动物被杀死后身体部分改变很大。但是在电脑屏幕上,身体每一层都可以电子式地剥下来。" 其他专家认为解剖技术有其局限性。国家科学教师协会执行理事格里・惠勒称虚拟演示并不能像真正解剖那样提供一种丰富的经验。也有其他人担心这些程序会剥夺孩子们的实践学习。

 
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